- Urbanization and suburbanization
Urbanization refers to an increase in the number of people living in towns and cities. Typically, the rise in urban population can be due to rural-urban migration or increased birth rate. Sub-urbanization is the outward growth in cities to engulf surrounding towns and villages (Lehavi 27). The expansion of the city usually is due to urban sprawl.
2. Explain some of the major reasons for sub-urbanization in the United States, as discussed in class. (Pay special attention to the 1950s and beyond)
The desire to separate work from home life is a significant factor for the sub-urbanization in the United States. The prosperous economy of the country from the 1950s increased people’s desire to go for a holiday and relax with their families. As a result, most individuals relocated to suburban areas since these areas provided them with a relaxed environment (Cullingworth and Caves 168). Additionally, the presence of proper infrastructures such as roads, electricity, and water made these place more attractive than cities. Furthermore, cities were usually congested, experience a lot of traffic jams, and frequently had power blackouts. Another cause for Sub-urbanization was the relocation of industries from cities to suburbs. The low costs of land coupled with cheaper rates and proper infrastructure in the suburbs encouraged most companies to move to these areas (Cullingworth and Caves 170). As a result, most people preferred living in suburbs since they were close to their areas of work.
- Why planning as discussed in the textbook and (political aspects, roles, types and styles, local agencies, etc.)
Urban planning provides a framework for an orderly growth of cities. In this regard, the area can make appropriate changes depending on the future needs of its residents (Cullingworth and Caves 182). Notably, appropriate plans enable a region to fulfill the future requirements of its residents, enhances livability, promotes equity, and provides opportunities for prosperity.
Additionally, planning assists in the creation of an appropriate urban form. In particular, the developers of an area establish policies on land use, public space, and layouts of infrastructure (Cullingworth and Caves 176). These regulations ensure that developed cities are accessible, safe, and able to provide appropriate houses for their residents.
Finally, proper planning enhances the urban economy. Most cities compete to attract investments with the aim of generating economic activities. Adequate preparation co-ordinates the distribution of economic activities, increases the value obtained from public finances, and coordinates the location and distribution of economic activities. As such, it determines the rate of economic growth of each city.
- An understanding of Kevin Lynch’s design ideas. How do planners use this?
Kevin Lynch’s design ideas are rich on the factors that planners should consider when developing cities. He notes that planners should make designs that allow mapping, learning, and shaping of towns (Lynch 81). In this case, people should be able to have a clear map of their environment. Further, the designs should be in a manner that allows all people to navigate through the cities. Finally, individuals should be able to conduct their normal activities in these areas.
5. 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in planning history ( lecture and in the textbook)
The World’s Columbian Exposition was held in 1893 to mark the 400th anniversary of the discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus. This festival happened in Chicago, and it had a significant impact on architecture, Chicago’s image, and the economic growth of the United States. This grand event covered over 600 acres and featured about 200 buildings. These structures used the neoclassical architecture (Lehavi 31). Mainly, this festival followed the Beaux-arts principle of design that focuses on symmetry, balance, and splendor. The exposition was primarily a prototype of how an ideal city should look.
6. Social aspects of planning and why are they important to the planning process.
The social aspects of planning entail considering whether individuals can be able to access essential services conveniently. As a result, these techniques ensure that communities can enjoy lasting benefits of the developments that occur in their areas (Lehavi 194). Usually, the most significant social aspect in planning is the establishment of road transport.
Transport determines the location of cities and the ability of its resident to access essential commodities such as food and water. The ability to access these items, in turn, it determines the lifestyle of people living in the city. Additionally, it leads the formation of settlements. Cities commonly occur at the banks of major rivers junctions, ports, or an intersection of trade routes (Lehavi 200). An areas accessibility also determines the size of the settlement. In some cases, a city on a small land can have a huge population due to its ability to access food and other necessities.
7. Way Stations
Way stations are also known as layovers. They refer to places where vehicles stop so that passengers can switch to other means of transport or board new cars (Cullingworth and Caves 162). Typically, buses and commuter vehicles stop for only a few minutes, while in air transport, travelers exit the aircraft and wait in the terminal. In mass transit, the way stations are usually used to enable passengers to recover from delays, allow for drivers’ change, or give them an opportunity to rest.
8. Describe NIMBY phenomenon.
The word NIMBY is an acronym for Not In My Back Yard. The NIMBY phenomenon refers to the behavior of some individuals opposing new developments near their residences. Typically, the opposed projects use dangerous technologies or can negatively affect people who are close to where they are built (Lehavi 212). These include infrastructures such as highways, airports, chemical plants, prisons, adult entertainment clubs, and military bases.
9. Home Rule gives cities and municipalities greater independence
Home rule gives cities and municipalities greater independence since it provides them with the power of establishing systems of governance without consulting the state (Cullingworth and Caves 75). Consequently, the authority to act on local affairs shifts from state laws to local charters. Additionally, there is usually a transfer of the responsibilities of local governments from the state legislature to the local community.
10. Eminent Domain: What is it? Why is it so controversial?
In the United States, eminent domain refers to the right of the government to take a person’s private property for public use while giving the original owner a just compensation. The state or federal government can transfer this authority to municipalities, government agents, and individuals as long as the property will be used for public benefit (Cullingworth and Caves 104). The main controversy in this law is that it results in a forceful evacuation of one from his/her property (Kim et al. 97). Additionally, there is always a difficulty in estimating whether the compensation for the loss of the property is fair. In most cases, original owners of property are usually paid less than they demand.
11. Euclid v. Ambler
The 1926 Village of Euclid, Ohio v. Ambler Realty Co. case established important precedence for the United States zoning regulations. This case bolstered the country’s zoning regulations and made the law clear for individuals. Ambler Realty owned 68 acres of land in Euclid, Ohio. In an attempt to prevent encroachment of industries into the town, the village developed a zoning ordinance based on six classes. These classes hindered Ambler from converting the land for industrial use, which subsequently made the company to sue the community. In its ruling, the Supreme Court argued that zoning ordinance was not an illegal extension of the village’s police power (Kim et al. 162). Additionally, the court found that zoning had not reduced Ambler’s land value since the latter’s assessments were based on speculation. Finally, the court established that the law was not discriminatory. Consequently, the court ruled in favor of Euclid since the zoning ordinance was justified by the village’s police power and was aimed at benefiting the public.
12. 1924 Standard State Zoning Enabling Act and 1928 Standard City Planning Enabling Acts.
The 1924 Standard State Zoning Enabling Act (SSZEA) was established under President Herbert Hoover. It had nine sections, which enabled for the proper functioning of the zoning process. In particular, it had a grant of power clause, which allowed legislative organs to divide local government’s territory into districts (Cullingworth and Caves 110). It also had a statement of purpose for the zoning regulations, and procedures for amending or stabling zoning regulations. Finally, a legislative body was established to advise it on zoning regulations.
The Standard City Planning Enabling Act (SCPEA) was established in 1928. It was an improvement of the1924 Standard State Zoning Enabling Act (SSZEA). It covered six subjects that were pertinent at that time. In particular, it dealt with the organization and power of the planning commission, the content of the master plan, and the provision for adoption of a master street plan (Cullingworth and Caves 115). It also dealt with guidelines on the requirement for approval of public improvements by the planning commission, the control of private subdivision of land, and the establishment of a regional plan and planning commission.
Cullingworth, Barry, and Roger Caves. Planning in the USA: Policies, Issues, and Processes. 4th ed., Routledge, 2014.
Kim, Iljoong, et al. Eminent Domain: A Comparative Perspective. Cambridge University Press, 2017.
Lehavi, Amnon. One Hundred Years of Zoning and the Future of Cities. Springer, 2017.
Lynch, Kevin. City Sense and City Design: Writings and Projects of Kevin Lynch. The MIT Press, 1996.