Assessment Three
Institutional Affiliation
Assessment Three

The elaboration likelihood model, ELM can be utilized to explain what made Sue’s campaign to go viral rather than improving brand awareness and the attitudes of the consumers. ELM suggests that when a message intended to persuade an audience is presented, it creates elaboration (Petty, Cacioppo & Kasmer, 2015). Elaboration is the effort which an audience puts in to analyze and process the message then decide whether to accept or reject it. The model also asserts that two processing routes are involved, the central route which is characterized by a high elaboration level and the peripheral route which features a low level of elaboration (Geddes, 2016). High elaboration goes along with high motivation and careful analysis of the message from every angle. If the customer finds it relatable, they can accept it and if they are not affected, they tend to ignore it. On the other hand, low elaboration is characteristic of low motivation which is highly likely to render the receiver’s attitude unchanged. Applying ELM on Sue’s case, the message contained in her campaign triggered low elaboration. This reflected low motivation and failure to analyze the message cognitively. The viewers felt less impacted, did not understand the content, or did not relate it with what was being actually campaigned for. Instead, they found it humorous and that is why it went viral for some time. Many people who liked the video did so mainly because the funny animals used in the video advert, the song, and even the message itself was funny but they were not positively impacted by it to an extent of buying the product. As a result, there was no change in neither the consumers’ attitudes nor brand awareness. To be more effective, Sue ought to have replaced the animal characters with real people made the campaign less humorous. Additionally, she would have included more persuading and clear messages that would enable the customers to better understand the product being advertised.

  1. What steps do consumers normally follow when they are making a decision? Explain two heuristics that the advertising company assumed consumers would use in order to make their buying decisions. Provide evidence and academic references for your answer.

There are five main stages involved in the consumer decision-making process:

  1. Problem /need recognition-initially, an individual recognizes a need that requires to be addressed or satisfied.
  2. Information search-After identifying the problem, a consumer engages in the search process to find adequate information regarding the particular item they want and what is available in the market and where.
  3. Evaluation-in this phase, the consumer has already found what product or service will solve their problem but evaluates the alternatives available.
  4. Purchase-In this stage, a customer has already concluded on which product they want to buy after careful evaluation. They then proceed with making a purchase of their chosen item.
  5. Post-purchase evaluation-After buying the product, the customer assesses whether their need was effectively met or satisfied, if it was above or below what they expected.

A major heuristic that Advert Co. assumed would enable customers to make buying decisions was designing new layouts for many of their print advertisements clients. Uniqueness is one of the strategies that help companies to attract more customers. By offering a unique item or product, companies offer competitive advantage which can really boost the brand by attracting many customers. In the market, there are consumers who seek exceptional items as it makes them feel satisfied. As for Advert Co., offering new graphics would enable consumers who were looking for unique design layouts to make decisions towards that direction.
Another heuristic that Advert Co. used assuming it customer would use to make buying decisions was advertising. By asking Sue to develop a campaign, the company wanted to relay a message that would convince customers to buy their products. Advertising a product or service makes information about the brand readily available to potential buyers (Schudson, 2013). They evaluate the message in it and determine if the item would satisfy their needs and make an informed decision.

  1. Using Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory as it relates to “symbolic consumption”, explain how differences in cultural dimensions might influence Sue and Gary’s responses to the purchase of an expensive watch. Provide examples from the case to support your answer and explain the different impact that symbolic consumption has on perceived status for different cultural groups.

Hofstede’s cultural dimension model assumes that culture has a great impact on an individual’s values which in turn, affects their behaviors (Schmitz & Weber, 2014). Given that both Sue and Gary come from different cultures, Gary is surprised to see Sue, an Indonesian, wear a luxurious watch while he still wears an old one. Gary, who is a senior and probably earning more than Sue may not purchase an expensive watch. This is because due to his culture, he does not value luxurious items. A simple watch, for him, might just function in the same manner as an expensive one. Besides, he is male and might be saving most of his salary on a property such as a house and land, just to mention a few. On the other hand, Sue comes from Indonesia but since she is now working in New Zealand, she might have bought the classy-looking watch to merely identify with other people in the company who earn more money than her. She might want to be considered a classy woman by others regardless of her pay. By doing so, Sue is a symbolic consumer. This is because she buys the watch out of its symbolic value rather than its function. Luxurious watches are mainly worm by people want to portray their loyalty to that particular brand or individuals of high social status.
Different cultural groups exhibit symbolic consumption for prestige purposes. In other words, people who are defined by a particular way of life tend to buy various items because they are perceived to be of high social status or trends. For instance, you may find individuals who belong to a particular culture inclined to wear clothes from a popular designer such as Gucci. This makes them be considered high-class persons by other members of that community that highly values that designer.

  1. (a) what behaviours are usually associated with each of the “big five” personality traits”? How would Sally score (low or high) on each? Provide evidence to support your answer.

Openness, extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and neuroticism are the big five dimensions of personality.
Sally would score high I terms of conscientiousness. Highly conscientious individuals are orderly and mindful of details. Similarly, Sally was determined to finish her tasks on time and reported early and left late to prepare her duties. As for Extraversion, Sally would perform poorly. Extroverts are social and make friends easily. However, Sally was shy and it was sometimes challenging for her to make friends. On the other hand, Sally would have a high score in the agreeableness personality dimension. Agreeableness is characterized by traits such as cooperation, kindness, trust, and empathy, just to mention a few. Sally liked cooperating with the company’s laws and eventually, in her team. She would also score high in neuroticism since she would easily get stressed and worried about many issues. Sally would also perform high in openness since showed efforts in tackling the new challenge of learning how to use the new computer software.
(b) Find one interesting, peer reviewed journal article linking any aspect of personality to any aspect of organisational behaviour. Briefly describe the aim, method and key findings. Why did you select this article (why it is interesting to you)? Reference the article using APA 6th and also submit the front page of the article (the page with the title and abstract)
Nuchcheddy, A. (2018). The Effect of Personality on Motivation and Organisational Behaviour: psychology and behavioural science international journal. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/victor/Downloads/Documents/PBSIJ.MS.ID.555760.pdf
The main purpose of the study was to determine whether personality has any impact on motivation and organizational behavior. Being a peer-reviewed article, the methodology involved collecting information from already published literature about the subject (Nuchcheddy, 2018). Journal articles related to personality, motivation and individual differences were used. For instance, the study consulted popular journals such as the journal of personal and social psychology, the journal of organizational behavior, and the Academy of management review. A theoretical review of various personality theories was then formed. The findings of the study revealed that personality impacts motivation through personal emotional stability, the amount of aggression, and extrovert as well as introvert features possessed by workers. The findings also indicated that organizational behavior is significantly affected by personality through work ethics, work environment, and organizational tolerance. I selected this article to gain more knowledge on whether personality traits can impact organizational behavior.

  1. Using Equity theory, analyse George and Sue’s different responses to realising there was inequity in their remuneration. Also consider the role of cognitive dissonance and disconfirmation/confirmation biases.

George and Sue responded differently after noticing there was inequality in their salaries compared to that of others. Based on the equity theory, both Sue’s and George’s reactions were appropriate. The model asserts that fairness is what motivates individuals. It also suggests that people tend to act in a manner which seems fair to them if they perceive inequity between themselves and others. Additionally, the equity theory indicates that individuals become more motivated if they observe fairness and get demotivated if they believe they are treated unfairly (Miner, 2015). Similarly, Sue was convinced that she was not being paid fairly and this demotivated her, making her act in a way which she assumed was fair in her eyes. For instance, she started delegating some of her duties to KIWI colleagues, slacking off, surfing the net while at work, and using the company’s postal service for personal purposes. On the other hand, George did not see their salary differences as unfair. Confirmation bias played a role in making George satisfied with the remuneration and work hard for the company. First, he believed that they deserved the pay given that they did not have University degree and performed poorly in the tests, unlike their counterparts. George, on the other hand, was very impressed with the level of relevant qualifications the Kiwis had, most had at least a BBus degree (George and Sue only finished high school in Indonesia). In addition, he is acutely aware of the low score he received on the tests he sat, reasoning that they indicate he is less able than others (who did well on the tests) to do a good job. He was also aware that what his colleagues did in their roles was really helped by the fact that most have English as their first language.  George continues to work as hard as he can for Advert Co. Additionally, the fact that their boss was a foreigner, they were privileged to have the opportunity to work in New Zealand and the newspaper which alleged that employers in NZ were discriminating against race disconfirmed was a small publication confirmed  George’s belief. However, for Sue, the newspaper confirmed her pre-existing believe that they were being paid unfairly.

  1. Use the JDCS model to analyse Sally’s job. Would anyone in this job be stressed? Hint: what aspects (other than the work itself) will impact on whether someone experiences negative stress?

According to the JDCS (job demand-control-support) model, workers with high demands, low control, and limited social support can lead to psychological and cardiovascular problems. While demand creates stress, having control or a say in the way one works decreases stress at work (Besen, 2013). Applying the JDCS model on Sally’s job, it is highly probable that anyone in her job would be stressed. One of the strains would come from the fact that she wants to create a good impression since she has just landed the job. Due to this internal demand, she is forced to report early at work and leave late which is not healthy as she might not have adequate time for herself or sleep. Someone in Sally’s job might also experience negative stress since she is the type who gets stressed and worried easily. Apart from this, there is limited control in her job. Together with their team, they are closely supervised and are not trusted that they can finish their tasks without being monitored. Lack of independence would make a worker in such a job strain since they cannot handle work without being directed. Additionally, the job would be stressing since it lacks adequate support from neither the organization nor the colleagues. This explains why Sally seeks to fit in her team. More negative stress is even more likely to be experienced since the management does not support her team even after requiring that they learn how to use the new computer software for redesigning. What is more, to be in Sue’s position would be dangerous to one’ mental health because her peers are also stressed. When a person is stressed at work, it might be helpful if they can get support from their colleagues. However, if they are also pressured, the person is vulnerable to severe stress and this is the situation that Sue is currently in.
Besen, E. (2013). The Job Demands-Control-Support Model: Understanding the implications of age. Boston College (Lynch School of Education).
Geddes, J. (2016). Elaboration likelihood model theory-using ELM to get inside the user’s mind.
Kim, K. H., & Zabelina, D. (2015). Cultural bias in assessment: can creativity assessment help?. The International Journal of Critical Pedagogy6(2).
Miner, J. B. (2015). Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Routledge.
Nuchcheddy, A. (2018). The Effect of Personality on Motivation and Organisational Behaviour: psychology and behavioural science international journal. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/victor/Downloads/Documents/PBSIJ.MS.ID.555760.pdf
Petty, R. E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Kasmer, J. A. (2015). The role of affect in the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. Communication, social cognition, and affect, 117-147.
Schmitz, L., & Weber, W. (2014). Are hofstede’s dimensions valid? a test for measurement invariance of uncertainty avoidance. interculture journal: Online-Zeitschrift für interkulturelle Studien13(22), 11-26.
Schudson, M. (2013). Advertising, the uneasy persuasion (RLE Advertising): Its dubious impact on American society. Routledge.