Council of Trent: is one of the most significant ecumenical councils of the Roman Catholic Church, which determined the outcome of the Counter-Reformation.
Reformation: This was a movement in the 16th century with a purpose of reforming of abuses in the Roman Catholic Church. It ended with the establishment of the Protestant and reformed churches.
Counter Reformation: This was the period of Catholic resurgence responding to the
Protestant Reformation that began with the Council of Trent; Pope Paul III started and led the Counter Reformation
Tenorlied: tenor is a musical genre of the music of the Renaissance period.
Chorale tune: A chorale is a type of melody whereby a hymn is sung by a congregation  in German protestant church service.
Four-part chorale; this is the normal type of chorale, whereby the sopranos sing the melody along with three lower voices.
roles of the chorale tune in Bach’s music:
Concertato style:  is a genre or a music style whereby groups of instruments  as well as voices share a certain melody, normally in alternation, and always over a basso continuo.
Polychoral style: this was a form of music during the late Renaissance as well as early Baroque eras involving spatially separate choirs singing in alternation.
Ritornello: This is a repetitive or recurring passage in the Baroque music for chorus or orchestra
Basso continuo (a.k.a. continuo):  This is an accompanying part that comprises of a bassline as well as harmonies, normally played on a keyboard instrument as well as with other instruments like bass viol and Cello.
Frottola:  This was a type of Italian amorous or comic song, particularly between 15th and 16th centuries. Musically, the frottola escapes contrapuntal complexity, preferring homophonic textures, clear and repetitive rhythms, and a narrow melodic range.

Chanson: This is a French art song of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. May refer to any song with French lyrics, occurring from the middle Ages to the present in a variety of musical styles

Madrigal (the Renaissance-era definition): a part-song for several voices, especially one of the Renaissance period, typically arranged in elaborate counterpoint and without instrumental accompaniment.

Word painting: also referred as tone painting or text painting; this refers to the musical technique of writing music that reflects the literal meaning of a song.

 For instance, ascending scales would accompany lyrics about going up; slow, dark music would accompany lyrics about death

Madrigalism: This refers to the illustrative devices used mainly in madrigals. This includes text painting, for example: changing the texture, tone, range, or volume to musically depict what the text is describing.

Triumphes of Oriana:  is a book of English madrigals, which was compiled and published in 1601 by Thomas Morley, which first edition has 25 pieces by 23 composers; It was meant in the honor of Queen Elizabeth I.

Petrarchan movement
Humanism: a Renaissance cultural movement that turned away from medieval scholasticism and revived interest in ancient Greek and Roman thought.
Artusi’s attack of Monteverdi’s madrigal
Baroque: Baroque music is a style of Western art music, which was composed from 1600 to 1750. Some composers of the music include Antonio Vivaldi, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Domenico Scarlatti, andClaudio Monteverdi.

Viol family characteristics

  • A viol is a bowed string instrument.
  • is played between the legs
  • Viols were heard primarily in ensemble, or consort, music.


Violin family characteristics

  • The violin is a wooden string instrument in the violin family.
  • A violin can perform gloriously by itself,as a standalone instrument as well as in a large group.
  • A violin is like an individual human voice that has a personality.
  • Each violin speaks for itself with a unique tone.
  • The violin can beautifully master all sorts of genres of music

Affections: the act or process of affecting or being affected.
Virtuosity: Refers to any great skill in music or another artistic pursuit.

Dialectic: the art of investigating or discussing the truth of opinions

Empiricism: is the art of investigating or discussing the truth of opinions.
Academies: Refers to a place of study or training in a special field.
The Camerata: This was a group of humanists, poets, intellectuals, and musicians in the late Renaissance Florence, who assembled under the Count Giovanni de’ Bardi’s patronage to discuss and guide trends in the arts, especially music and drama.

Girolamo Mei: Girolamo Mei was an Italian historian and humanist, renowned in music history for providing the intellectual motivation to the Camerata, which attempted to revive ancient Greek music drama.

Vincenzo Galilei: He was an Italian lutenist, composer, as well as music theorist. He was the father of Galileo Galilei, the famous astronomer and physicist. He contributed greatly to the musical revolution, which marks the beginning of the Baroque era.

Monody: a poem lamenting a person’s death

stilerappresentativo: is a singing style developed in the early Italian operas during the late 16th century. It is more communicative than speech, nevertheless not as melodious as song.
Stile recitativo:  This is a style used in cantatas, oratorios, and operas, which involves declaiming of text in the rhythm of natural speech using slight melodic disparity and little orchestral accompaniment.
Caccini’s “New Music”: is a collection of monodies in addition to songs for single voice and basso continuo by Giulio Caccini. Was published July 1602.
Intermedio: was a dramatic performance with music and habitually dance, performed between the acts of a play for celebrating special occasions in the Italian courts.
Favola in musica: is descriptive of early Baroque opera at the beginning of the 17th century.
Noble musical play
Public music drama:
Opera seria: refers to the noble and “serious” style of Italian opera that predominated in Europe from the 1710s to c. 1770.
Primapratica: Is an early Baroque music that is more of a Palestrina style, than to more “modern” styles.
Secondapratica: This is a young music ensemble specializing in performing XVII and XVIII century repertoire for a XXI century audience.
Libretto: the text of an opera or other long vocal work; It is intended for, a lengthy musical work like opera, oratorio and cantata.
Stileconcitato: Is a Baroque style designed by Claudio Monteverdi; It has effects like having rapid repeated notes and extended trills as symbols of bellicose agitation or anger.
Tremolo: is a vacillating effect in a musical tone, usually produced by speedy reiteration of a note, or by rapid repeated variation in the pitch of a note.
Teatro San Cassiano: was the first public opera house when it opened in 1637
Toccata: a musical composition for a keyboard instrument that is meant to exhibit the performer’s technique and touch.
Passacaglia:  this is a musical form that has roots in early 17th century in Spain.  it is often based on a bass-ostinato and written in triple metre.
Harpsichord: is a musical instrument that is played using a keyboard. It produces sound by plucking a string after pressing a key.
Clavichord: is a small, rectangular keyboard instrument that produces a soft sound using metal blades attached to the ends of key levers that gently press the strings. It was  popular between the early 15th to early 19th centuries.