Vocabulary and concepts to know( 1 or 2 phrases for each, can google, google always has answer)
Council of Trent:
A significant ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic held in 1545 – 1563 in Bologna and Trento, Italy. It is also the embodiment of Counter Reformation by protestant reformation.
A religious movement in Western Europe in the sixteenth century that wanted a complete renewal and changes in the church.
Counter Reformation:
These are the changes or the revival of the Catholic Church that was brought up to match the changes proposed.
A style in polyphonic song known in the sixteenth century that consisted tone line with melody, and other outline as contrapuntal supplement.
Chorale tune, four-part chorale; roles of the chorale tune in Bach’s music:
Chorales in Bach‘s music were to incorporates chorales into either one or two movements. The chorales were also used to bring imaginary scenes.
Concertato style – a style in music whereby either voices or instruments shared an alternating melody
polychoral style –  a type of music played in the eras of Renaissance and Baroque where spate choirs sung alternating
Ritornello – Italian word meaning little return- used for a passage that reoccurred in the Baroque music.
Basso continuo (a.k.a. continuo) – continuous bass played by the keyboard
Figured bass – also known as thoroughbass, this is when music notations where numerals and symbols shows chords, non-chord and intervals tones and they play in connection to bass. 
Frottola – Italian secular song well known in the 15th and 16th century.
Chanson – Any lyrical French song normally secular or polyphonic
Madrigal (the Renaissance-era definition) – a type of secular choral music basically a part-song of the Baroque eras and its origin is Italy.
Word painting – music that displays a picture by imitating emotions and natural sounds to bring a live picture into one’s mind.
Madrigalism – the quality of music to clearly bring the literal meaning illustrated.
Triumphes of Oriana – A collection of various works of talented English song composers and song writers.
Petrarch a movement – A movement led by a scholar and poet, the movement was to revive canzone and sonnets.
Humanism – progress of life’s philosophy without believing in theism and supernatural beings and supports strong ethical ways of life.
Artusi’s attack of Monteverdi’s madrigal – Artusi’s attack on Monteverdi was meant to defend his music teacher when Monteverdi responded to the introduction of his fifth book of madigrals.
Baroque – a Western art of music style composed between 1600 and 1750.
Violin family characteristics – A string wooden instrument, they are small in size but with quality music.
Affections –a tender feeling of affection towards something or someone. Affections can be triggered by the sense of hearing.
Virtuosity – musical skills for example, pronunciation and also clear meaning of the words and messages.
Dialectic – when two or more parties sit to reason, debate or argue together.
Empiricism – the knowledge acquired through life testing and experience
Academies ­– An institution or organization of training or study in a special field for example – music academy
The Camerata – this is a group of adventurous musicians
Girolamo Mei – an Italian Humanist and historian who is well known in the music history.
Vincenzo Galilei ­– An Italian song composer and theorist.
Monody – this is a greek sad and lamenting poem or song used in sad occassions
Stile rappresentativo – a style of singing in italy
stile recitative – professional music linked to the advancement of the opera
Caccini’s “New Music” collection, and embellishments – these are the published collected works by the monadic.
Intermedio – this is a theoretical activities in the music field and always danced between the plays and acts.
favola in musica – this is a classical music.
noble musical play – American, well composed and arranged music played as a leading role.
public music drama – this is done for the benefit of the public an in public.
Operaseria – songs used in drama
Primapratica – refers to early Baroque music
Libretto – these are texts used in music work
tragèdie lyrique – French lyric tragedy which is a genre of French opera introduced by Jean-Baptiste Lully.
French overture – musical form used during the Baroque period and divided into two parts enclosed by double bars and repeat signs.
Alessandro Scarlatti – Italian Baroque composer famous for operas and chamber cantatas and considered founder of Neapolitan school of opera.
Cardinal Ottoboni -Italian cardinal and grandnephew of Pope Alexander VIII who was a great patron of music and art.
Coloratura – elaborate ornamentation of a vocal melody found  in operatic singing by a soprano.
accompanied recitative –recitative that has stricter rhythm and more involved often through orchestral accompaniment.
Cadenza – improvised or written-out ornamental passage played or sung by a soloist in free rhythmic style but also allows virtuosic display
Capriccio – a lively piece of music that is short and free in form.
aria – long accompanied song for a solo voice found in an opera or oratorio.
Sinfonia – symphony or orchestral piece used as introduction, interlude, or postlude to an opera, oratorio, cantata, or suite.
sonata da camera – chamber sonata used to describe a group of instrumental pieces set into three or four different movements that begin with a prelude or a small sonata.
sonata da chiesa –  church sonata or an instrumental composition from the Baroque era that has four movements.
trio sonata texture – musical form that is written for two or three solo melodic instruments.
luxuriant style – style overflowing abundantly with exuberant detail
(solo) concerto – concerto in which a single soloist is accompanied by an orchestra.
concerto grosso – musical composition for a group of solo instruments accompanied by an orchestra.
ritornello form – ritornello is the opening theme, always played tutti, which returns in whole or in part and in different keys throughout the movement.
ripieno – body of instruments accompanying the concertino in baroque concerto music.
concertino – short concerto or solo instruments playing with an orchestra.
absolute music – music that is not explicitly “about” anything.
program music – type of art music that musically render an extra-musical narrative offered to an audience.
fugue (know the parts and their order, including exposition, subject, answer, countersubject, episode, stretto) – contrapuntal composition in which the short melody or phrase is introduced  by one part and successively taken up by others and subsequently developed by interweaving the parts.
cantata (and its typical characteristics) – medium-length narrative piece of music for voices with instrumental accompaniment found in solos, chorus, and orchestra.
Oratorio – large-scale musical work for orchestra and voices, usually a narrative performed without the use of costumes, scenery, or action.
chorale prelude – short liturgical composition for organ using a chorale tune as its basis most prominent in the Baroque era.
Standard repertoire – collection of music pieces played by an individual musician or ensemble, or composed for a particular instrument or group of instruments, voice or choir that is typical of Baroque era.
conservatorio – secular place for teaching and learning specializing in music education.
Masque – amateur dramatic entertainment, popular among the nobility in 16th- and 17th-century England that involved dancing and acting performed by masked players
style brisé – general term for irregular arpeggiated texture in instrumental music of the Baroque era.
far out point – usual swing from tonic to dominant in the first half, followed by a return in the second half by way of this.
Essay topics
            The new forms and genres of instrumental music during the Baroque era used contrast as a dramatic element that can be seen in the loud and soft as well as solo and ensemble as seen in concertos. They also articulated the concept of melody and harmony while at the same time producing different instrumental sounds. These involved use of different pitch while at the same time adopting the harpsichord as the primary keyboard instrument and an integral member of the continuo. In addition, this period saw the emergence of different forms such as sonata, concerto, cantata amongst others.
Monody emerged from the contribution of Florentine Camerata which proposed solo singing after finding that the existing vocal forms were unsuitable for the clear and dramatic expression of text. It refers to the solo vocal style that can be distinguished through the use of one melodic line and instrumental accompaniment. Amongst its supporters was Francesca Caccini who focused much on the notation of her monody by ensuring that the rhythmic placement of the syllables and words were well placed. Additionally, Giulio Caccini became a pioneer in monody by creating emotionally affective solo vocal lines that were accompanied by relatively simple chordal harmony in the instruments. He also introduced the monody referred to as affetto cantando (passionate singing), whereby passages in a song could be presented through precise emotion.

Opera in France was meant to glorify the King and the country and held that the libretto was more important than the music. In French opera, the recitatives models of correct declamation accompanied by the orchestra were given much significance. On the other hand, Italian opera held the libretto in high regard than the music while the recitatives were taken at great speed accompanied by few chords. It also had many arias which are in extended form and melodically ornate. This shows that the serious opera in the north and south of Italy were inflexible especially with regard to the libretto and musical composition. Serious opera in England incorporated French and Italian elements such as the instrumentals of Lully and the emotional recitatives and arias found in Italian serious opera.

Bach composed both secular and sacred music such as the music Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 and “Christ lay in the bonds of death” respectively. The sacred music was characterized with preludes, fantasies, toccatas, fugues and multiple imitative pieces as well as variations. These also had sonatas, capricious, concertos and orchestras. On the other hand, the sacred songs were characterized by arias with different variations that are drawn from the Baroque era.
Handel began to compose operas in early 1705 through the Almira that was highly successful after which he composed others namely Rodrigo and Agrippina, that were produced 1707 and 1709 respectively. Further, he produced Rinaldo that was released during the 1710–11 London opera season. After staying in London permanently, he created Alessandro in 1727 before abandoning Italian opera. On the other hand, he adopted oratorios whereby he went ahead to produce 14 concerts consisting of oratorios only in 1735. He also produced Messiah that debuted at 1742.
Music borrowing may involve using quotations or materials that can vary from the melody to chord progression and musical structure and compositional technique. For example, Handel perfected the art of musical borrowing by imitating other composers’ work such as his opera in Rinaldo which recognized English elements. Additionally, Handel borrowed Purcell’s work by learning his technique of dramatic expression of music. Moreover, in the Baroque era, Handel continued to borrow from other composers and reworked on the pieces such as Messiah that would be adopted by later performers or singers.
There were serious developments of vocal polyphony between the 11th and 17th century. In the 12 century, composers such as Léonin and Pérotin developed the organum and incorporated a third and fourth voice to the homophonic chant. However, in the 13 century the chant-based tenor was altered divided and concealed in secular tunes. This was in preparation for the launch of vocal polyphony that later became applicable in Western Europe and Roman Catholicism. In this state, the church adopted a departure from its earlier solemn stand in singing to a more jovial approach associated with vocal polyphony.