Rain water harvesting
. However, in no other instance is the increase in barren land more pronounced than the changing climate. There is a change in weather patterns which has resulted into dry periods which may be more pronounced. As such, it is important to consider sustainable rain harvesting such as rooftop rainwater harvesting (Balram & Megh , 2016).
The implementation of rain water harvesting techniques requires the collaboration of the community and other governmental stakeholders.

  • The rainwater harvesting will collect water from roof tops for supply into a storage unit.
  • Implementation is achieved through proper rooftop water accumulation techniques
  • The design include tiles, roof sheets, gutters and a collection tank.
  • The design will benefit the each household by ensuring water storage for use during the dry seasons,

The community will have to use sustainable techniques such as using bamboo sticks for gutters while the roof will need to be made of tiles or iron sheets. On the other hand, the reservoirs will need to be made of plastic or steel. This can be sourced from the local hardware. However, the gutters will need periodic maintenance while the roof tops will need periodic cleaning to remove debris.
Installation on a dwelling of a single family costs about $ 8000 and $ 10000.
Subsurface dams
These are dams that tend to store both water and coarse sand. They are designed across sand rivers that are common in arid and semi-arid lands. The sub surface dam, located in the lower parts of the sand river, stores water in the pore spaces of the sand (Satheeshkuma, et al., 2017). As such, it addresses the shortage of water in these types of areas.
Design of such a system requires the collaborative efforts of the community, geotechnical engineers and the government. In essence:

  • Flash floods transported by sand rivers are stored in the pore spaces within the sand for future use.
  • The process is supported by capillary rise and bore water digging.
  • The design includes: a concrete walling, a piezometer and a well.
  • The community will benefit by having a place where to extract water retained during flash floods.

One of the considerations is the location of the subsurface dam. Only areas with frequent flash floods and within a gorge are suitable. Moreover, hygiene should be maintained by ensuring that there are no disposal parts on the upper parts of the sand river. However, there should be continuous consultation with the geotechnical engineers to ensure that there is sufficient amounts of water flowing downstream.
A sand dam that caters for the needs of about 8000 and 1000 individuals together with their livestock will cost about $ 40,417.
Waste disposal
There is an increase in the amount of waste generated by the human population. Not all the methods that can be used for the disposal of these wastes are sustainable. However, the design of an incineration facility will result to a reduction in the amount of waste as well as result in energy generation. Nevertheless, incineration will reduce the amount of waste from both solid and waste water (Guerrero, 2013).
The design will involve the government, waste collection agencies and the community. Nevertheless:

  • An incineration plant will reduce the amount of waste by about 30 to 60% through controlled combustion.
  • The process is supported because of the ability to convert waste to energy.
  • Components of the system include a chimney, electrostatic precipitator and a combustion chamber.
  • A civil engineer will have to design the system while natural labor will be used to construct it.

To begin with, the amounts of waste generated will determine the size of the incineration plant. However, the construction materials will have to be sourced from the internal environment. Bricks are an important construction material. The electrostatic precipitator will be externally sourced and will have to be replaced periodically. Nevertheless, consultation with environmentalists as well as structural engineers will be imperative for efficiency in the process.
Size can be medium or large. Based on this, the plant can be designed at a rate of $ 670 for each ton or $ 1206 for each ton.
Landfills address the issue of a decreasing space for waste disposal. The waste is buried into ground, compacted and covered. Later on, the surface can be used for recreations well as the construction of small residential houses. A small village can take years to completely fill a landfill.
Such a system begins with the careful selection of a piece of land. Later on, the land area is excavated to the required size as per the request of the government agencies and the local communities. This will involve the professional services of an engineer.Neverthless, the waste is deposited into the landfill and continuous compaction enable the storage of more waste. The use of a covering will prevent the contamination of ground water.
Considering the extent of a land fill, one of the most important determinants is the land area. However, there should be mechanisms to control the gas generated and the leachate produced. Nonetheless, continuous consultation with civil and geotechnical engineers is imperative for an effective system
Engineering costs range between $500,000 and $ 1 million
Liner costs about $75000 for each acre.


Balram, P. & Megh , G. R., 2016. Soil and Water Engineering: Principles and Applications of Modeling. s.l.:s.n.
Guerrero, L. A., 2013. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries.
Satheeshkuma, S., Venkateswaran, S. & Kannan, R., 2017. Rainfall–runoff estimation using SCS–CN and GIS approach in the Pappiredipatti watershed of the Vaniyar sub basin, South India. modelling earth systems and environment.