Part 1 – Crime and Punishment Questions • What is so bad about crime? Why is punishing a criminal morally appropriate in society? Even in a highly liberal society that cares about individual freedom, no one really opposes to the idea of punishing criminals. • Economist’s perspective on Crime? – Technology-forcing impact (the development of security system) – The industries/businesses related to crime prevention crime would not be so bad in the economist perspective for several reasons. First, it helps technology development. Because we have robbers and hackers, these security systems are, in fact, developing, right? And secondly, there are industries and businesses related to crime and crime prevention, including the prisons, security companies, courts, or the jobs like lawyers, police, security guards, and so on and so forth. So crime and punishment generate some economic benefits for the society • Is punishment necessary? Ethical Perspectives on Crime (1) • Happiness theory of well-being – It makes people unhappy due to the fear and threats of crime. It is basically arguing that the fear and threats of crime negatively affect people’s happiness. So it makes people unhappy – Mental and physical damage o Problem: Subjectivity of unhappiness/ misery; Some crimes generate much greater fear than others. The crime usually creates mental and physical damage to the victims. So it diminishes human well-being. That’s the basic argument of this perspective. When you get robbed, for example, the damage you have is not just to losing resources, right? The materials you had. But you may also suffer from the sense of deprivation, lack of security, and fear. And this mental damage can be much more disturbing. But there is a problem of this ethical perspective, happiness theory. What is it? The subjectivity of happiness and unhappiness. So the problem of this perspectiveis that the unhappiness and misery a person has as the victim of a crime can be subjective, right? And not all crimes generate the same level of unhappiness. Some crimes generate much greater fear than others, much greater unhappiness than others. Ethical Perspectives on Crime (2) • Jeremy Bentham’s “Boundless Injury” Jeremy Bentham argues that our psychological reaction to different forms of crime can be equally distinct. So the most affecting crime, according to him, is the ones generating ever present fear for a much greater number of people, depressing their lives, and creating a wide and deep pool of misery