What is youth?
(LEARNING TO LIVE TOGETHER, 1945) states that Youth is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood, during this stage most individuals will see themselves as independent. (Learner & Spanier, 1980) states that childhood and the adulthood period can be described as the period within the life stages when most of an individual’s biological, cognitive, psychological, and social characteristics are changing from childhood to adulthood.
What sorts of problems young people face, how these are defined and what sorts of responses/solutions are proposed?
Youth go through so many problems every day and one of them is peer-pressure; peer pressure is when an individual is trying to force another individual to do something they do not want to do. A type of peer pressure an individual can go through is smoking, this happens when someone offers the other person cigarettes or any other type of drug. The non-smoker may feel pressured to take the drug because other people in their peer group are taking the drugs. This is a problem for youth because if they are smoking at a young age they may not be able to live longer because they are killing cells in the body due to the substance in the drug. (Smokefree NHS, 2016) states that smoking is the biggest cause of deaths in England, and there have been more than 80,000 deaths each year and it’s likely that one in two smokers will die from a smoking-related disease. There are several things that smoking can do and it can affect the youth. For example, the young people’s lungs can be affected badly by smoking. Symptoms will start to occur such as coughs, colds, wheezing, this is how smoking can cause fatal diseases such as pneumonia, emphysema and lung cancer. Some youth does not know that smoking can affect their brain. The NHS says that if you smoke, individuals are in a high chance of having a stroke than someone who doesn’t smoke. Smoking increases the individual risk of having stroke by at least 50%. Stroke is a type of illness that can cause brain damage and death so by the young people smoking they are doubling their chances of getting stroke. This is a problem that smoking can cause stroke and death because they say that youth is the next generation and if all our youth are dying there would be no youth left to make the future better.
The top 10 challenges facing young people today, as cited on  the www.allaboutschoolleavers.co.uk website, is as follows:

  1. Lack of employment opportunities
  2. Failure to succeed in education system
  3. Issues related to body image
  4. Family problems
  5. Substance abuse
  6. Pressures of materialism
  7. Lack of affordable housing
  8. Negative stereotyping
  9. Pressure of 24-hour social networking
  10. Crime

While    the Central YMCA charity compiled the  data (date unknown) in a research survey across 1,600 young people of the age range 16-25, there is no direction on how to address these gripping issues      and concerns by the young people. Citations to        the inability to secure meaningful positions within           mainstream education  or social employment      sector   appear  to top    the area of concerns referred to in the quantitative        research data survey present as           worrisome in context     and further help to         muddy  the murky waters of how to protect, support and develop our youth of            today    so they are appropriately             skilled   for meaningful  social     placement  tomorrow.          Where  do we go from  here?    Community outreach     programmes,     government       initiatives NEET      (not       in education, employment          or training), The                Prince’s                Trust      and        other     social                charity  foundationsand/or         private  sector   businesses          all            offer      sector-segmented                support                and        opportunities    for          young   people  across   the         whole   social     spectrum.                                                Notable                success has         been     attributed           to            many     of            the                initiatives;           notably The        Prince’s                Trust      and        the         government       NEET      initiative.                                Desirable             approaches        to
address                the         issues    at            the         very       heart     of            concern                at            both      local       and                national                levels    may       prove    problematic        in            themselves        due        to            fiscal                challenges           and        the         (maybe)               innate   unwillingness     to            tackle    the         issue      head-on           at            central  government       level      in            its           efforts  to            appease               the         electorate                and        other     interested           parties.
How do the system and structure define and interact with the youth?
The transition to adulthood is a critical stage of human development during which young people leave childhood behind and take on new roles and responsibilities. It is a period of social, psychological, economic, and biological transitions, and for many young people it involves demanding emotional challenges and important choices. To a large degree, the nature and quality of young people’s future lives depend on how successfully they negotiate through this critical period. Yet in many developing countries, it is a stage of life that has only recently begun to receive focused attention.
Why do different young people experience these transitions in different ways?
Disjuncture appears to be, in the main, a significant factor of transitional differences in young people.   By that, I sense    the subjective   disjunction between the youth’s objective and subjective transition into              adulthood are         complex, not fully understood by those                connected with research or the extent by which perceptions are affected by the youths of today may be a linking factor in the social-class-differentiation resulting in the distinctive social separations       in strata between            those considered in the                higher-cultural  and        those                referenced         as            being     in            the         lower-cultural    groups.
Our        mental  health   can         be           largely   considered         as            a              triggering             component        of                how       well        we,        as            people, are         able       to            absorb, develop,              change and                transition             through                periods of            our         lives.                      According            to            young                minds,  this         is             ‘shaped                by           our         own       unique  combination       of            nature,                nurture and        events’.                                                               Such      references          may       infer      a                considerably      more     perplexing          challenge             for          those    in            positions              to                research,             understand,       intervene            and        facilitate               on-going              support                for                young   people.                Each       person  is             individual.                           Each       person  has         their      own                family    upbringing,         circumstances,  experiences,      wishes, dreams,               aspirations,         hopes,                wants,  desires,                perspective        of            life          and        of            their      world    around them.                    For         some     also,       there     is             complete             lack        of            all            of            the         above.                  They      haven’t been     shown, guided  or            encouraged        to            live,        think,    try,         smile,    enjoy                or            go           and        get         for          example              and        this         creates a              monumental                challenge             for          the         appropriate        services                to            pool       together              the                necessary            resources            to            help       the         young   person  cope      with       change,                build                trust      and        embrace              transition             through                youth    to            adulthood.          Research                suggests              the         four       elements             of            transition             that        young   people  face       are:                § Emotional:       affected               by           personal              experiences,      for          example              bereavement                or            the         divorce or            separation          of            parents § Physical:           moving to            a              new                home,   class       or            school   § Intellectual:    moving from      one        type       of            organisation       to                another,              for          example              from      nursery to            school,  primary school   to            secondary                school,  secondary           school   to            college  or            college  to            university            § Physiological: going                through                puberty                or            a              long-term            medical condition.
These    changes               are         immensely          stressful               for          young   people, as            they       are         for                adults    also.                       Aligned with       the         high       degree of            uncertainty         is             the                unparalleled       assertion             that        it             may       be           a              lonely    place     once      they       have                transitioned       through                the         period   of            change and        reached               the         destination                (wherever          that        may       be)         and        it             is             perhaps               much     better   to            do                nothing,               stay        where   they       are         and        operate                in            the         area       of            their                existing comfort                zone      doing     the         things    they       know     how       to            do           best.                      Better   the         devil      you        know     applies  aptly      here,     I               believe!
Society has a role to play in          supporting          the young           people to            ensure their       view of the world around them is not         one of   distortion; teachers,       community         support services               and members,                family,  friends and government and      or            social     outreach              initiatives, for    example,             must                ensure that        tolerance             to            change is             informed,            understood,       coping   mechanisms                practised             and education provided                to            young   people so            they are more   appropriately equipped to       deal and               successfully manage change.                      Change is             inevitable            and, most                often,   for          the good.            Success is a journey,      not a destination and young people        must      be                able to embrace               the         journey and confident   they have            the         innate   resources            to                manage  it and  themselves on a               daily basis.
What is the recent change between childhood and adulthood (new challenges that young people face)?


LEARNING TO LIVE TOGETHER. (1945, Novemeber 16). Retrieved from UNESCO : http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/youth/youth-definition/
SETH J. SCHWARTZ, M. B. (2016). Identity Development, Personality, and Well-Being in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood. Identity Development, Personality, and Well-Being in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood, 1-4.
Smokefree NHS. (2016, December 06). Retrieved from Smokefree NHS: https://www.nhs.uk/smokefree/why-quit/smoking-health-problems
The problem of “youth” for youth work’, Youth and Policy 62, pages 45 – 66. Also available in the informal education archives, http://www.infed.org/archives/youth.htm.